No one lives in a vacuum. People interact with society every day. Even if you stay in your room all day and don’t go outside, you are still expected to obey the laws and rules of society. You might turn on your computer, watch television or read a book or magazine, all of which are influenced by society. In short, everyone is influenced by society.
Sociology is the study of human society and its patterns. Sociologists do research on the problems and development of societies and the ways that humans interact. For example, a sociologist might look at how a specific society deals with public health issues like obesity. What does the society do? How do people in the society view the issue? What things work to combat the problem?
Whether they are looking at class, gender, race, social movement or one of many other topics, sociologists do research by analyzing statistics, languages and the social movements of societies. There are three main lenses through which sociologists look at society: positivist, interpretivist and critical theories. Let’s look closer at each one.
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Imagine that you are a sociologist. You’ve noticed a trend in your culture that voting is low among poor and young people. Older, richer people are still voting regularly, but people who are not part of the upper class and/or older generation are voting less and less as the years pass. You want to know why this is happening.
How do you go about studying this phenomenon? Positivist sociology studies the rules that govern behavior in society through a scientific lens. If you are a positivist sociologist, you are interested in the science of society. You want to apply the scientific method and scientific tools to your studies to find the natural laws of human behavior within society.
You know how people are bound by the laws of gravity? Science has tested and shown that gravity is a natural force that works on human bodies. Positivism looks at sociology the same way that scientists look at gravity; it says that there are certain natural forces that work on societies, and they should be studied in a scientific manner.
So, let’s go back to our scenario. You’re a sociologist, and you want to study why younger, poor people are not voting. As a positivist sociologist, you might look for an external force that causes this to happen. Is it because younger, poorer people are less educated and therefore less likely to follow elections?
Let’s say that education is your hypothesized cause of lower voting among certain parts of society. You want to test this hypothesis using tools like surveys and statistical analysis. This is the essence of positivist sociology; you develop a hypothesis about the forces at work in society and test it using scientific tools.
The essence of positivist sociology is testing hypotheses using scientific tools.